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FGDC Endorsed External Standards

This web page was updated for FGDC endorsement of the Web Feature Service 2.0 standard.

The FGDC Steering Committee has officially endorsed the following external standards in accordance with the FGDC Policy on Recognition of Non-Federally Authored Geographic Information Standards and Specifications [PDF].

These standards play an important role in enabling interoperability.  Included are standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium; ISO Technical Committee 211, Geographic information/Geomatics; the American National Standards Institute (through International Committee for Information Technology Standards Technical Committee L1, Geographic information systems) and de facto standards.

See FGDC-endorsed standards for standards developed within the FGDC.

Standard ID Standard title Endorsement
Date

To obtain a copy of the standard Category*
Scope/Abstract Applicability
GeoTIFF Revision 1.0 GeoTIFF Revision 1.0 2010/09/27
Link
CES GeoTIFF is a public domain specification which allows georeferencing information to be embedded within a TIFF file. The potential additional information includes projections, coordinate systems, ellipsoids, datums, and other information needed to establish the spatial reference for the imagery or gridded data contained in the file. The GeoTIFF format augments the TIFF format, so TIFF-enabled software incapable of reading and interpreting the specialized georeferencing metadata should still be able to open a GeoTIFF file sufficiently to at least view the image or scanned map data. The GeoTIFF specification defines a set of TIFF tags provided to describe geographic and cartographic information associated with TIFF imagery that originates from such sources as satellite imaging systems, scanned aerial photography, scanned maps, digital elevation models, or as a result of geographic analyses. Its aim is to allow the means for tying a raster image to a known model space or map projection, and for describing those projections. The tags documented in the GeoTIFF specification are to be considered completely orthogonal to the raster-data descriptions of the TIFF specification, and impose no restrictions on how the standard TIFF tags are to be interpreted, which color spaces or compression types are to be used, etc. Various participants within the National System for Geospatial-Intelligence (NSG) have validated requirements to make selected imagery and gridded data holdings available in Geographic Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF), in addition to other NSG-supported formats. GeoTIFF is not intended to replace NITF/NSIF as the prevailing format for that data within the NSG. Rather, the intent is to enable more timely (through automation) support for delivering imagery and gridded data in a form suitable for direct ingest by the imagery and Geospatial Information System (GIS) application software tools readily available to those working in the civilian sector supporting disaster relief, homeland security, and similar activities. While GeoTIFF is widely used within the civilian sector, it has many options which often result in non-interoperability among disparately developed implementations. An NGA implementation profile, NGA.IP.0001_1.0, was developed to help meet objectives for deployment of GeoTIFF-related capabilities within the NSG that will also be widely supported within the civilian sector. Compliance with the implementation profile requires compliance with the TIFF and GeoTIFF specifications. The Implementation Profile for GeoTIFF, NGA.IP.0001_1.0, is applicable for use with uncompressed imagery, gridded data and transparency masks that have been georeferenced (orthorectified, georectified or equidistant-sampled data). The profile is not applicable for supporting requirements for compression and georeferencable (non-rectified) imagery within the NSG (see NITFS and JPEG 2000 DISR citations for these applications).
HDF 5 Hierarchical Data Format V 5.0 2010/09/27 Link
CES Hierarchical Data Format is the name of a set of file formats and libraries designed to store and organize large amounts of numerical data.
INCITS 145 - 1986   [R2007] Codes for Identification of Hydrologic Units in the U.S. and the Caribbean (Outlying) Areas 2010/09/27 ANSI

The codes are available here
CCS This standard presents and describes codes used for the identification of hydrologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas. The codes identify a hydrologic system that; divides the United[ States and the Caribbean into 21 major regions . These :regions are further subdivided into approximately 2,150 units that delineate river basins having drainage areas usually greater than 700 square miles. The codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resources organizations in the storage, retrieval., and exchange of hydrologic data; the indexing and inventorying of hydrologic data and information ; the cataloging of water-data acquisition activities;; and a variety of other applications.
INCITS 31-2009 Information technology - Codes for the Identification of Counties and Equivalent Areas of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Insular Areas 2010/09/27 ANSI 

The codes are freely available here through the Census Bureau
CCS This standard establishes a structure for the assignment of identifying data codes to counties and county equivalents of the United States and its insular and associated areas, for the purpose of information interchange among data processing systems.
INCITS 38-2009 Information technology - Codes for the Identification of the States and Equivalent Areas within the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Insular Areas
The codes are freely available through Bureau of the Census at http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ansi/ansi.html.
2010/09/27 ANSI

The codes are freely available here through the Census Bureau
CCS This standard establishes a structure for the assignment of identifying codes to states and state equivalents of the United States and its insular areas, for the purpose of information interchange among data processing systems.
INCITS 446-2008 Information technology - Identifying Attributes for Named Physical and Cultural Geographic Features (Except Roads and Highways) of the United States, Its Territories, Outlying Areas, and Freely Associated Areas, and the Waters of the Same to the Limit of the Twelve-Mile Statutory Zone 2010/09/27 ANSI
CCS This standard applies to selected named physical and cultural geographic features, geographic areas, and locational entities of all types, except roads and highways, that are generally recognizable and locatable by name (i.e., have achieved some landmark status) and are of interest to any level of government and the public for any purpose that would lead to the representation of the feature in printed or electronic maps and/or geographic information systems.  This standard applies to populated places, primary county divisions (such as townships and census county divisions), American Indian and Alaska Native areas, counties and equivalent legal and statistical entities, including but not limited to, all those specified by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names and U.S. Bureau of the Census in coordination with federal, state, county, and local agencies responsible for land and real property management.  This standard covers the fifty States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the outlying areas (American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and United States Minor Outlying Islands) and freely associated areas (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and the Republic of Palau) of the United States and the waters of the same to the limit of the twelve mile statutory zone.
INCITS 453 - 2009 Information technology - North American Profile of ISO 19115:2003 - Geographic information - Metadata (NAP - Metadata) 2010/09/27 ANSI  

The standard is freely available through Land Infomation Ontario
RAS The North American Profile of ISO19115:2003 Geographic information – Metadata is intended to identify geospatial metadata that are needed for North American organizations to describe their geospatial data, including dataset and dataset series, and related Web services. It is based on ISO19115:2003 Geographic information – Metadata and ISO19106:2004 Geographic information – Profiles. It also includes service metadata from ISO19119:2005 Geographic information – Services and implementation perspectives from ISO/TS19139:2007 Geographic information – Metadata – XML schema implementation. As outlined in ISO19106:2004 Geographic Information – Profiles, it satisfies conformance Class 1 since it defines a pure subset of ISO19115:2003 Geographic information – Metadata and ISO19119:2005 Geographic information – Services. Retained metadata elements have been selected to enhance discovery of geographic information within North America and to minimize authorized duplications. The extension of code lists is also intended to support to geographic information discovery. Annex A provides the adjustments made to the ISO19115:2003 Geographic information – Metadata and ISO19119:2005 Geographic information – Services UML models.
INCITS 454 - 2009 Information technology - Codes for the Identification of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas and Related Statistical Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico 2010/09/27 ANSI

The codes are freely available here through the Census Bureau
CCS This standard establishes a structure for the assignment of data codes by which to uniquely identify metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (generically referred to as “core based statistical areas”) and related statistical areas (i.e., metropolitan divisions, combined statistical areas, New England city and town areas (NECTAs), NECTA divisions, and combined NECTAs) of the United States and Puerto Rico, for the purpose of information interchange among data processing systems.
INCITS 455 - 2009 Information technology - Codes for the Identification of Congressional Districts and Equivalent Areas of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Insular Areas 2010/09/27 ANSI

The codes are freely available here through the Census Bureau
CCS This standard establishes a structure for the assignment of identifying data codes to congressional districts of the United States and its insular and associated areas, for the purpose of information interchange among data processing systems
INCITS/ISO 19107:2003[R2008] Geographic Information - Spatial schema 2010/09/27 ANSI

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard (ISO 19107:2003, Geographic information - Spatial schema) specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic features, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It treats vector geometry and topology up to 3 dimensions. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing, and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects of up to 3 topological dimensions embedded in coordinate spaces of up to 3 axes. This standard is applicable to the storage, manipulation, interchange, and exploitation of  data in vector form. It forms part of an overall conceptual model for geospatial data in vector form that will eventually replace MIL-STF-2407.
INCITS/ISO 19108:2002[R2008]   ISO 19108:2002 w/ Cor 1:2006 Geographic information - Temporal schema w/Corrigendum 1 2010/09/27 ANSI

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard defines the standard concepts needed to describe the temporal characteristics of geographic information as they are abstracted from the real world. Temporal characteristics of geographic information include feature attributes, feature operations, feature associations, and metadata elements that take a value in the temporal domain. The standard also specifies a model for describing the temporal reference systems such as calendars and temporal coordinate systems. This standard is applicable to the storage, manipulation, interchange, and exploitation of data. This standard is also applicable to other types of data that have a significant temporal representation component.
INCITS/ISO 19110:2005 [R2010] Geographic information - Methodology for Feature Cataloguing 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This standard defines a methodology for cataloging feature types. Feature types are abstractions of real world phenomena (e.g., roads, rivers, waves, wrecks, and winds). This standard may be used as a basis for defining the universe of discourse being modeled in a particular application, or to standardize general aspects of real world features being modeled in more than one application. This standard specifies how the classification of feature types is organized into a feature catalogue and presented to the users of a set of geospatial data. This standard is applicable to creating catalogs of feature types in previously uncataloged domains and to revising existing feature catalogs to comply with standard practice. This standard is applicable to the storage, manipulation, interchange, and exploitation of data. By documenting standardized collections and presentations of feature type information (metadata) net-centric data sharing and interoperability is facilitated.
INCITS/ISO 19111:2007 [2007] Geographic information - Spatial referencing by coordinates 2010/09/27 ANSI

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS Any coordinate-based usage of geographic information needs a unique definition of the underlying reference system. A standardized conceptual schema for coordinate-based reference systems is necessary for geographic information to be shared between applications. The schema will be of value to developers of geographic information systems and other applications requiring data based upon coordinate reference systems. It will also aid users in specifying their requirements for data referenced by coordinates and will ensure that data producers use coordinate reference systems which are consistently defined. This International Standard establishes a common requirement for describing coordinate reference systems (CRSs) including the datum giving the relation to the Earth and the coordinate system used. The standard stipulates that CRSs do not alter with time. Changes with time are catered for by specification of new CRSs which identify the epoch of their realisation. Hybrid coordinate reference systems (HCRSs) are included to cater for situations when the components of position come from different CRSs. A typical example consists of geodetic coordinates (for horizontal position) and heights related to sea level. The requirements for transformation of data with reference to different datums are given, as well as the requirements for conversion including map projection between different coordinate systems. The definitions of accuracy and precision of spatial reference by coordinates are given. This standard is complementary to MIL-STD-2401 DoD World Geodetic System 84 (WGS84), 11 January 1994. This standard is applicable to those who wish to establish a common requirement for describing coordinate reference systems (CRSs) including the datum giving the relationship to the earth and the coordinate system used.
INCITS/ISO 19111-2:2007 Georgraphic information - Spatial referencing by coordinates - extension for parametric values 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This part of ISO 19111 describes the conceptual schema for the description of spatial referencing using parametric values or functions. It uses the schema of ISO 19111 to combine a position referenced by coordinates with a parametric value to form a spatio-parametric coordinate reference system. The spatio-parametric coordinate reference system may optionally be extended to include time.
INCITS/ISO 19112:2003 [2004] Geographic information - Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This standard specifies ways to define and describe systems of spatial references using geographic identifiers that are not based explicitly on coordinates but on a relationship with a location defined by a geographic feature or features. The relationship of the position to the feature may be: (a) containment, where the position is within the geographic feature, for example in a country; (b) based on local measurements, where the position is defined relative to a fixed point or points in the geographic feature or features, for example at a given distance along a street from a junction with another street; or (c) loosely related, where the position has a fuzzy relationship with the geographic feature or features, for example adjacent to a building or between two buildings. In particular this standard specifies the structure of gazetteers -- directories of geographic identifiers describing location instances in accordance with a spatial reference system. This standard is applicable to the storage, manipulation, interchange, and exploitation of data. In particular it addresses the representation of gazetteer-based (e.g., place name and addressing) information.
INCITS/ISO 19115:2003 [R2008]  ISO 19115:2003 w/ ISO 19115 Cor. 1:2006
Geographic information - Metadata + Corrigendum 1 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal schema, spatial reference, and distribution of digital geographic data. This International Standard is applicable to: the cataloguing of datasets, clearinghouse activities, and the full description of datasets; geographic datasets, dataset series, and individual geographic features and feature properties.
INCITS/ISO 19115-2:2009 [2009] Geographic information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS ISO 19115-2 extends ISO 19115, adding 138 additional metadata elements for describing imagery datasets.
INCITS/ISO 19118:2005 [2006] Geographic information - Encoding 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS ISO 19118 provides a model for rule based encoding of data that conforms to an application schema.
INCITS/ISO 19119:2005 [R2010] Geographic information - Services 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS ISO 19119 defines a geographic services taxonomy based on the semantic characteristics of services and provides examples. That taxonomy consists of the titles of the categories and the definitions for the categories.
INCITS/ISO 19119:2005/AM 1:2008 [2008] Geographic information - Services - Amendment 1: Extensions of the service metadata model 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS ISO 19119:2005 with Amendment 1:2008 (1) identifies and defines architecture patterns for service interfaces used for geographic information and definition of the relationships to the Open Systems Environment model; (2) provides a geographic services taxonomy and a list of example geographic services placed in the services taxonomy; (3) prescribes how to create a loosely and tightly coupled platform-neutral service specification, and how to derive platform-specific service specifications that are conformant; (4) Supports the selection and specification of geographic services from both platform-neutral and platform-specific perspectives. Amendment 1:2008 amends the Service Metadata defined in ISO 19119:2005 based on implementation experience in the Open Geospatial Consortium. Changes have been made to the abstract schema, primarily concerning the relation between service metadata and dataset metadata, supporting both loose and tightly coupled services. ISO 19119:2005 is applicable to the development and implementation of specifications for loosely coupled geospatial information services from both platform-neutral and platform-specific perspectives. ISO 19119:2005 w/Amd 1:2008, with the base components from ISO 19119:2005, is applicable to the development and implementation of specifications for tightly coupled geospatial information services from both platform-neutral and platform-specific perspectives.
INCITS/ISO 19123:2005 [2006] Geographic information - Schema for coverage geometry and functions 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard defines a conceptual schema for the spatial characteristics of coverages. Coverages support mapping from a spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal domain to feature attribute values where feature attribute types are common to all geographic positions within the domain. A coverage domain consists of a collection of direct positions in a coordinate space that may be defined in terms of up to three spatial dimensions as well as a temporal dimension. Examples of coverages include rasters, triangulated irregular networks, point coverages and polygon coverages. Coverages are the prevailing data structures in a number of application areas, such as remote sensing, meteorology and mapping of bathymetry, elevation, soil and vegetation. This International Standard defines the relationship between the domain of a coverage and an associated attribute range. The characteristics of the spatial domain are defined whereas the characteristics of the attribute range are not part of this standard.
INCITS/ISO 19132:2007 [2008] Geographic information - Location Based Services - Reference model 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard defines a reference model and a conceptual framework for location-based services (LBS), and describes the basic principles by which LBS applications may interoperate. This framework references or contains an ontology, a taxonomy, a set of design patterns and a core set of LBS service abstract specifications in UML. This International Standard further specifies the framework’s relationship to other frameworks, applications and services for geographic information and to client applications.
INCITS/ISO 19133:2005 [2006] Geographic information - Location Based Services - Tracking and navigation 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard is a description of the data and services needed to support tracking and navigation applications for mobile clients. The web services views of this International Standard are given in Annex C. This International Standard describes the data types, and operations associated with those types, for the implementation of tracking and navigation services. This International Standard is designed to specify web services that can be made available to wireless devices through web-resident proxy applications, but is not restricted to that environment.
INCITS/ISO 19134:2007 [2007] Geographic information - Location Based Services - Multimodal routing and navigation 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard provides a conceptual schema for describing the data and services needed to support routing and navigation application for mobile clients who intend to reach a target position using two or more modes of transportation. This International Standard provides a description of a service type to support routing and navigation for a mode that operates either on a fixed route or with a fixed schedule, a description of data type for transfers, and a description of data type for schedule information and route information of a mode with a fixed route and/or schedule.
INCITS/ISO 19135:2005 [2006] Geographic information - Procedures for registration of geographical information items 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard specifies procedures to be followed in establishing, maintaining and publishing registers of unique, unambiguous and permanent identifiers and meanings that are assigned to items of geographic information. In order to accomplish this purpose, this International Standard specifies elements of information that are necessary to provide identification and meaning to the registered items and to manage the registration of these items.
INCITS/ISO 19141:2008 [2008] Geographic information - Schema for moving features 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard defines a standard method to describe the geometry of a feature that moves as a rigid body.
ISO 19109:2005 Geographic information - Rules for application schema 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This set of standards builds on the domain reference model of ISO 19101. It provides a family of abstract conceptual schemas for describing the fundamental components of features as elements of geographic information. ISO 19109 specifies a general feature model for integrating these components into features and provides rules for doing so in an application schema. ISO 19107 specifies UML classes for representing the spatial characteristics of features as composites of geometric and/or topological primitives. ISO 19108 does the same for the temporal characteristics of features and also specifies classes for describing relevant temporal reference systems. ISO 19123 provides a schema for an alternative representation of spatial information as a coverage, in which non-spatial attributes are assigned directly to geometric objects rather than to features composed of such objects. ISO 19141 extends ISO 19107 to support the description of moving geometric objects. ISO 19137 provides a profile of ISO 19107 that is limited to describing features as simple geometric primitives of 0, 1, or 2 dimensions.
ISO 19127:2005 Geographic information - Geodetic codes and parameters 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This Technical Specification defines rules for the population and maintenance of registers of geodetic codes and parameters and identifies the data elements, in compliance with ISO 19111 and ISO 19135, required within these registers. Recommendations for the use of the registers, the legal aspects, the applicability to historic data, the completeness of the registers, and a mechanism for maintenance are specified by the registers themselves.
ISO 19131:2007 Geographic information - Data product specifications + Amendment 1 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This International Standard describes requirements for the specification of geographic data products, based upon the concepts of other ISO 19100 International Standards. It describes the content and structure of a data product specification. It also provides help in the creation of data product specifications, so that they are easily understood and fit for their intended purpose.
ISO 19136:2007 Geographic information - Geographic Markup Language 2010/09/27 ANSI

OGC  

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
CES ISO 19136:2007 is an XML encoding for the transport and storage of geographic information modeled according to the conceptual modeling framework used in the ISO 19100 series of International Standards including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features. The standard defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms, and conventions that: (1) provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML; (2) allow profiles that support proper subsets of framework descriptive capabilities; (3) support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities; (4) enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets; (5) support the storage and transport of application schemas and data sets; and (6) increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe.  ISO 19136:2007 is equivalent to OpenGIS® GML 3.2.1 This standard is applicable to the development of systems that have requirements to access or distribute geospatial data using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML).
ISO 19144-1:2009 Geographic information -- Classification Systems -- Part 1: Classification system structure 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This part of ISO 19144 specifies the structure for a classification system together with the mechanism of defining and registering classifiers. This International Standard specifies the use of discrete coverages to represent the result of applying a classification system to an area. This structure permits the development of other parts to this International Standard that address specific classification systems. This International Standard also defines the technical structure of a register of classifiers in accordance with ISO 19135.
ISO 6709:2008/Corrigendum 1:2009 Standards representation of geographic point locations by coordinates w/Corrigendum 1 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS ISO 6709:2008 supports the interchange of coordinates describing geographic point location. It specifies the representation of coordinates, including latitude and longitude and other coordinate types, to be used in data interchange. It specifies the representation of height and depth that may be associated with horizontal coordinates. Representation includes units of measure and coordinate order. This standard is applicable to the interchange of coordinates describing geographic point location. It specifies the representation of coordinates, including latitude and longitude, to be used in data interchange. It additionally specifies representation of horizontal point location using coordinate types other than latitude and longitude. It also specifies the representation of height and depth that may be associated with horizontal coordinates. Representation includes units of measure and coordinate order. This International Standard supports point location representation through the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and, recognizing the need for compatibility with the previous version of this International Standard, ISO 6709:1983, and allows for the use of a single alpha-numeric string to describe point locations. This standard does not require special internal procedures, file-organization techniques, storage medium, languages, etc., to be used in its implementation.
ISO/IEC 13818-2:2000 MPEG 2 - video 2010/09/27 ISO CES ISO/IEC 13818-2 defines the video standards for the MPEG-2 system. The Motion Imagery (Video) standard specifies the structure and data formats for the production, exchange, transmission, or use of digital video data.
ISO/IEC 13818-3:1998 MPEG 2 - audio 2010/09/27 ISO CES ISO/IEC 13818-3 defines the audio standards for the MPEG-2 system. Audio for MI systems specifies data formats for the exchange of the digital sound track associated with video in compressed and non-compressed formats.
ISO/IEC 15444-1:2004 | ITU-T Rec. T.800 JPEG 2000 2010/09/27 ISO CES ISO/IEC 15444-1:2004 | ITU-T Rec. T.800 defines a set of lossless (bit-preserving) and lossy compression methods for coding bi-level, continuous-tone gray-scale, palletized color, or continuous-tone color digital still images. Application areas for JPEG 2000 include:- Internet - Digital Photography - Medical Imaging - Wireless imaging - Document imaging - Pre-Press - Remote sensing and GIS - Cultural Heritage - Scientific and Industrial - Digital Cinema - Image archives and databases - Surveillance - Printing and scanning - FacsimileSee http://www.jpeg.org/apps/index.html for more details on general applicability of JPEG 2000.
ISO/IEC IS 10918-1 | ITU-T Recommendation T.81 JPEG 2010/09/27 ISO
CES http://www.jpeg.org/jpeg/index.html
ISO/TS 19103:2004 Geographic information - Conceptual schema language 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This Technical Specification identifies the combination of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) static structure diagram with its associated Object Constraint Language (OCL) and a set of basic type definitions as the conceptual schema language for specification of geographic information. Secondly, this Technical Specification provides guidelines on how UML should be used to create geographic information and service models that are a basis for achieving the goal of interoperability.  The data types defined in this Technical Specification are those that are usually defined by the development environment’s data definition language. Each of these types can be represented in a variety of logically equivalent forms. The ones presented here are not meant to restrict the usage of other equivalent forms native to the chosen development environment. ISO/IEC 11404 presents an equivalent definition for most of the types and templates presented here.
ISO/TS 19104:2008 Geographic information - Terminology 2010/09/27 ISO/TC 211
RAS The ISO/TC 211 Multi-Lingual Glossary of Terms is a compilation of terms developed from International Standards developed by ISO/TC 211. Its purpose is to encourage consistency in the use and interpretation of geospatial terms.   Every record in the glossary includes a term, its definitions and a reference to an authoritative source document. Abbreviations, examples and notes are also included where available. Terms and definitions that are under review (due to a revision of an International standard) are clearly identified.


ISO/TS 19138:2006 Geographic information -- Data quality measures 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
RAS This Technical Specification defines a set of data quality measures. These may be used when reporting data quality for the data quality subelements identified in ISO 19113. Multiple measures are defined for each data quality subelement, and the choice of which to use will depend on the type of the data and its intended purpose.
ISO/TS 19139:2007 Geographic information -- Metadata -- XML schema implementation 2010/09/27 ANSI 

A factsheet for this standard is available here.
CES This part of the ISO 191XX Family of Standards provides a spatial metadata XML (spatial metadata eXtensible Mark-up Language (smXML)) encoding, an XML schema implementation derived from ISO 19115, Geographic information Metadata. The metadata includes information about the identification, constraint, extent, quality, spatial and temporal reference, distribution, lineage, and maintenance of the digital geographic dataset. ISO/TS 19139 is designed to provide a common XML specification for describing, validating and exchanging geographic metadata. The Standard is intended to promote interoperability, and exploit ISO 19115's advantages in a concrete implementation specification. The implementation specification details the following: The XML schemas will be derived directly from the harmonized ISO 191XX UML master model to ensure one common schema. The transformation of the ISO 19115 and related ISO/TC 211 abstract UML models into XML schema. For informative purposes, scripts for performing the transformation are referenced. This process follows the guidelines defined by ISO 19106. Provides dataset implementation and extension examples. Provides an abstract conformance test suite. Although this specification is directly intended to describe geographic metadata for datasets, the nature of the XML schema allows the schemas defined here to be applied to datasets, aggregations of datasets, geographic features, feature attributes, feature types, and feature attribute types, etc. While the specifics of non-dataset usage of the XML schemas defined here are outside the scope of this specification, these XML schemas are designed to support these types of implementations. ISO/TS 19139 is applicable to provide a common XML specification for describing, validating and exchanging geographic metadata. It is intended to promote interoperability, and exploit ISO 19115's advantages in a concrete implementation specification.
NetCDF NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) 2010/09/27 Link
CES NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a set of software libraries and self-describing, machine-independent data formats that support the creation, access, and sharing of array-oriented scientific data.
OGC 04-094; OGC 06-027r1 OpenGIS® Web Feature Service Implementation Specification, version 1.1.0 with Corrigendum 1
2010/09/27 OGC
CSS A Web Feature Service (WFS) request consists of a description of query or data transformation operations that are to be applied to one or more features. The request is generated on the client and is posted to a web feature server using HTTP. The web feature server then reads the request and returns a set of results that conforms to the OpenGIS Geography Markup Language Implementation Specification. This standard is applicable to the development of systems that have requirements to access or distribute geospatial feature data over a network.
OGC 04-095 OpenGIS® Filter Encoding Implementation Specification, version 1.1 2010/09/27 OGC
CES A filter expression is a construct used to constrain the property values of an object type for the purpose of identifying a subset of object instances to be operated upon in some manner. This specification describes an XML encoding of the OGC Common Catalog Query Language (CQL) as a system neutral representation of a query predicate. Using the numerous XML tools available today, such an XML representation can be easily validated, parsed and then transformed into whatever target language is required to retrieve or modify object instances stored in some a persistent object store. For example, an XML encoded filter could be transformed into a WHERE clause for a SQL SELECT statement to fetch data stored in a SQL-based relational database. Similarly, an XML encoded filter expression could be transformed into an XPath or XPointer expression for fetching data from XML documents. A large class of OpenGIS; web based service requires the ability to express filter expressions in XML. The filter encoding described in this document is a common component that can be used by a number of OGC web services. Any service that requires the ability to query objects from a web-accessible repository can make use of the XML filter encoding described in this document. For example, a web feature service may use the XML filter encoding in a GetFeature operation to define query constraints. Other services based of the web feature service, such as Gazetteer or the Web Registry Service, could also make use of this filter encoding. This standard is applicable to the development of systems that use the interfaces specified by the OpenGIS® Web Feature Service Implementation Specification.
OGC 05-005; OGC 08-050 OpenGIS® Web Map Context (WMC) Documents Implementation Specification, Version 1.1.0 w/Corrigendum 1 2010/09/27 OGC
CES This is a companion specification to the OGC Web Map Service Interface Implementation Specification. WMS specifies how individual map servers describe and provide their map content. The Context specification states how a specific grouping of one or more maps from one or more map servers can be described in a portable, platform-independent format for storage in a repository or for transmission between clients. This description is known as a "Web Map Context Document," or simply a "Context." A Context document includes information about the server(s) providing layer(s) in the overall map, the bounding box and map projection shared by all the maps, sufficient operational metadata for Client software to reproduce the map, and ancillary metadata used to annotate or describe the maps and their provenance for the benefit of human viewers. A Context document is structured using eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Annex A of this specification contains the XML Schema against which Context XML can be validated. This specification applies to the creation and use of documents which unambiguously describe the state, or "Context," of a WMS Client application in a manner that is independent of a particular client and that might be utilized by different clients to recreate the application state. There are no competing standards.
OGC 05-007r7; OGC 08-091r6 OpenGIS® Web Processing Service, Version: 1.0.0 w/ Corrigendum

OGC
CSS WPS provides client access across a network to pre-programmed calculations and/or computation models that operate on spatially referenced data. WPS defines a standardized interface that facilitates the publishing of geospatial processes, and the discovery of and binding to those processes by clients. Processes include any algorithm, calculation or model that operates on spatially referenced data. Publishing means making available machine-readable binding information as well as human-readable metadata that allows service discovery and use. The calculation can be extremely simple or highly complex, with any number of data inputs and outputs. When a system requires client access across a network to pre-programmed calculations and/or computation models that operate on spatially referenced data over the world wide web.
OGC 05-077r4 OpenGIS® Symbology Encoding Implementation Specification, version 1.1.0 2010/09/27 OGC
CES Symbology Encoding (SE) defines an XML language to encode user-defined styling information that can be applied to digital Feature and Coverage data. SE defines the grammar for styling map data independent of any service interface specification and defines styling language rules that the client and server can both understand to portray the output of Web Map Servers, Web Feature Servers and Web Coverage Servers. SE graphical parameters and their values are derived from SVG/CSS2 standards with identical names and semantics. This specification is applicable to the development of systems that require the ability to encode and portray digital Feature and Coverage data using user-defined styling language rules.
OGC 05-078r4 Styled Layer Descriptor profile of the Web Map Service Implementation Specification, version 1.1.0 2010/09/27 OGC
CES This specification addresses the need for geospatial consumers (either humans or machines) to control the visual portrayal of the data with which they work. The OpenGIS Web Map Service (WMS) Implementation Specification supports the ability for an information provider to specify very basic styling options by advertising a preset collection of visual portrayals for each available data set. However, while a WMS can provide the user with a choice of style options, the WMS can only tell the user the name of each style. It cannot tell the user what the portrayal will look like on the map. More importantly, the user has no way of defining styling rules. This specification defines a styling language for both purposes that the client and server can both understand. The standard may be used for the development of any system intended to provide net access to data to be displayed as a map or spatially reference image, and for systems that need to access and display such data. It should be used in either case if there is a requirement for user-specified map symbology. There are no competing standards.
OGC 06-009r6 OpenGIS® Sensor Observation Service Interface Standard, version 1.0.0 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS Sensor Observation Service (SOS) Standard provides web service interface for requesting, filtering, and retrieving observations and sensor system information. This is the intermediary between a client and an observation repository or near real-time sensor channel. A Sensor Observation Service provides an API for managing deployed sensors and retrieving sensor data and specifically observation data. Whether from in-situ sensors (e.g., water monitoring) or dynamic sensors (e.g., satellite imaging), measurements made from sensor systems contribute most of the geospatial data by volume used in geospatial systems today. This standard should be used for the development of any system that requires web service interface for requesting, filtering, and retrieving observations and sensor system information.
OGC 06-024r4 OpenGIS® Location Services: Tracking Service Interface Standard 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS??

OGC 06-042 OpenGIS® Web Map Service Implementation Specification, Version 1.3.0 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS This Standard provides two operations (GetCapabilities and GetMap) that support of the creation and display of registered and superimposed map-like views of information that comes simultaneously from multiple sources that are both remote and heterogeneous. An optional third operations (GetFeatureInfo) provides access to information about displayed map features. The standard should be used for the development of any system intended to provide net access to data to be displayed as a map or spatially referenced image, and for systems that need to access and display such data. There are no competing standards.
OGC 07-000, OGC 07-122r2 OpenGIS® SensorML Encoding Standard v 1.0 w/Schema Corregendum 1 (1.01) 2010/09/27 OGC
CES The primary focus of SensorML is to define processes and processing components associated with the measurement and post-measurement transformation of observations. The SensorML document also defines the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) Common data types used throughout the SWE encodings and services. This corrigendum corrects sections of the SWE Common schema.
OGC 07-006r1; OGC 07-010 OpenGIS® Catalogue Service (CAT) Implementation Specification (2.0.2) + Corrigendum for OpenGIS Implementation Specification 07-006: Catalogue Services, Version 2.0.2 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS This standard specifies the interfaces between clients and catalogue services, through the presentation of abstract and implementation-specific models. Catalogue services support the ability to publish and search collections of descriptive information (metadata) for data, services, and related information objects. Metadata in catalogues represent resource characteristics that can be queried and presented for evaluation and further processing by both humans and software. Catalogue services are required to support the discovery and binding to registered information resources within an information community. The standard specifies the interfaces, bindings, and a framework for defining application profiles required to publish and access digital catalogues of metadata for geospatial data, services, and related resource information. Metadata act as generalized properties that can be queried and returned through catalogue services for resource evaluation and, in many cases, invocation or retrieval of the referenced resource. Catalogue services support the use of one of several identified query languages to find and return results using well-known content models (metadata schemas) and encodings. CAT 2.0.2 is a corrigendum of CAT 2.0.1 and includes many additions and changes, most increasing clarity or fixing errors for the protocol binding. The OpenGIS Catalogue Service Implementation Specification is applicable to the implementation of interfaces on electronic catalogues for Geospatial  information. There are no competing standards.
OGC 07-045 OpenGIS® Catalogue Services Specification 2.0.2 - ISO Metadata Application Profile 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS This application profile document specifies the interfaces, bindings, and encodings required to publish and access digital catalogues of metadata for geospatial data, services, and applications that comply with the given profile. Metadata act as generalized properties that can be queried and returned through catalogue services for resource evaluation and, in many cases, invocation or retrieval of the referenced resources.
OGC 07-057r7 OpenGIS® Web Map Tile Service Implementation Standard, version 1.0.0 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS This Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) Implementation Standard provides a standard based solution to serve digital maps using predefined image tiles. The service advertises the tiles it has available through a standardized declaration in the ServiceMetadata document common to all OGC web services. This declaration defines the tiles available in each layer (i.e. each type of content), in each graphical representation style, in each format, in each coordinate reference system, at each scale, and over each geographic fragment of the total covered area. The ServiceMetadata document also declares the communication protocols and encodings through which clients can interact with the server. Clients can interpret the ServiceMetadata document to request specific tiles. This OGC® document is applicable to servers and clients that can serve and consume rendered tile maps. It can be combined with other OGC standards and also integrated with the emerging RESTful applications and "mash-ups".
OGC 07-067r5, 07-066r5 OpenGIS® Web Coverage Service (WCS) Implementation Standard, version 1.1.2 w/Corregindum 2 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS A WCS provides access to potentially detailed and rich sets of geospatial information in forms that are useful for client-side rendering, multi-valued coverages, and input into scientific models and other clients. It provides available data together with their detailed descriptions; allows complex queries against these data; and returns data with its original semantics (instead of pictures) which can be interpreted, extrapolated, etc. -- and not just portrayed. The WCS returns representations of space-varying phenomena that relate a spatiotemporal domain to a (possibly multidimensional) range of properties. This version of WCS supports only grid coverages. Examples include remotely-sensed images, raster maps, digital terrain models. The WCS provides three operations: GetCapabilities, GetCoverage, and DescribeCoverage. The GetCapabilities operation returns an XML document describing the service and brief descriptions of the data collections from which clients may request coverages. The DescribeCoverage operation lets clients request a full description of one or more coverages served by a particular WCS server. The server responds with an XML document that fully describes the identified coverages. The GetCoverage operation returns a coverage (that is, values or properties of a set of geographic locations), bundled in a well-known coverage format. The WCS specification is used for the development of any system that is intended to provide access to, or to access, coverage data such as remotely sensed images, raster maps, or digital terrain models. There are no competing standards.
OGC 07-074 OpenGIS® Location Services (OpenLS): Core Services, version 1.2 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS?? The OpenGIS® Open Location Services Interface Standard (OpenLS) specifies interfaces that enable companies in the Location Based Services (LBS) value chain to “hook up” and provide their pieces of applications such as emergency response (E-911, for example), personal navigator, traffic information service, proximity service, location recall, mobile field service, travel directions, restaurant finder, corporate asset locator, concierge, routing, vector map portrayal and interaction, friend finder, and geography voice-graphics. These applications are enabled by interfaces that implement OpenLS services such as a Directory Service, Gateway Service, Geocoder Service, Presentation (Map Portrayal) Service and others.
OGC 07-134r2 OGC KML 2.2 – Abstract Test Suite (1.0.0) 2010/09/27 OGC
RAS This document is an abstract test suite (ATS): a compendium of abstract test cases that provide a basis for verifying the structure and content of OGC KML 2.2 instance documents.
OGC 07-147r2 OpenGIS® KML, version 2.2.0 2010/09/27 OGC
CES KML is an XML language focused on geographic visualization and used to encode and transport representations of geographic data for display in web browser., including annotation of maps and images. Geographic visualization includes not only the presentation of graphical geographic data, but also the control of the user's navigation. KML uses a tag-based structure with nested elements and attributes. KML documents and their related images (if any) may be compressed using the ZIP format into KMZ archives. KML documents and KMZ archives may be shared by e-mail, hosted locally for sharing within a private internet, or hosted on a web server. This standard is applicable to the development of systems that require the ability to visualize earth based geographic data in a web browser.
OGC 08-028r7 OpenGIS® Location Services (OpenLS): Part 6-Navigation Service 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS?? This OpenGIS Implementation Standard defines the interfaces for OpenGISÒ Location Services (OpenLS): Part 6 - Navigation Service (formerly the Full Profile of the Route Determination Service), which is part of the GeoMobility Server (GMS), an open location services platform.
OGC 06-024r4 OpenGIS®  Location Services: Tracking Service Interface Standard 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS?? The OpenGIS Tracking Service Interface Standard supports a very simple functionality allowing a collection of movable objects to be tracked as they move and change orientation. The standard addresses the absolute minimum in functionality in order to address the need for a simple, robust, and easy-to-implement open standard for geospatial tracking.
OGC® 07-014r3 OpenGIS® Sensor Planning Service Implementation Specification, version 1.0.0 2010/09/27 OGC
CSS Sensor Planning Service (SPS) defines an interface to task any form of sensor or model. SPS enables a client to determine collection feasibility for a desired set of collection requests for one or more mobile sensors/platforms, or a client may submit collection requests directly to these sensors/platforms. Using SPS, sensors can be reprogrammed or calibrated, sensor missions can be started or changed, simulation models executed and controlled. The feasibility of a tasking request can be checked and alternatives may be provided. SPS implementations cover a wide range of application scenarios. SPS is currently used to control assets such as simple web cams as well as satellite missions. This standard should be used for the development of any system that requires the ability to task any form of sensor or model.
TIFF Revision 6.0 Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) 2010/09/27 Link
CES TIFF is a tag-based file format for storing and interchanging raster images. TIFF describes image data that typically comes from scanners, frame grabbers, and paint- and photo-retouching programs. A primary goal of TIFF is to provide a rich environment within which applications can exchange image data. This richness is required to take advantage of the varying capabilities of scanners and other imaging devices. Though TIFF is a rich format, it can easily be used for simple scanners and applications as well because the number of required fields is small. TIFF is capable of describing bilevel, grayscale, palette-color, and full-color image data in several color spaces. TIFF includes a number of compression schemes that allow developers to choose the best space or time tradeoff for their applications. TIFF is not tied to specific scanners, printers, or computer display hardware. TIFF is portable. It does not favor particular operating systems, file systems, compilers, or processors. TIFF allows the inclusion of an unlimited amount of private or special-purpose information. For application within Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) environments: While TIFF is widely used within the civilian sector, it has many options which often result in non-interoperability among disparately developed implementations. An NGA implementation profile, NGA.IP.0001_1.0, was developed to help meet objectives for deployment of TIFF-related capabilities within the NSG that will also be widely supported within the civilian sector. Compliance with the implementation profile requires compliance with the TIFF specification. The Implementation Profile for GeoTIFF, NGA.IP.0001_1.0, is applicable for use with uncompressed imagery, gridded data and transparency masks that have been georeferenced (orthorectified, georectified or equidistant-sampled data). The profile is not applicable for supporting requirements for compression and georeferencable (non-rectified) imagery within the NSG (see NITFS and JPEG 2000 DISR citations for these applications).
UML 2.2 Unified Model Language (UML) 2.2 2010/09/27 Link
RAS Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized general-purpose modeling language in the field of software engineering. The standard is managed, and was created by, the Object Management Group.  UML includes a set of graphic notation techniques to create visual models of software-intensive systems.
 GENC Ed.1 Geopolitical Entities, Names, and Codes Standard, Edition 1.0  2012/11/27  NGA CCS  The GENC Standard specifies a profile of ISO 3166, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. This profile addresses unique U.S. Government requirements for: restrictions in recognition of the national sovereignty of a country; identification and recognition of geopolitical entities not included in ISO 3166; and use of names of countries and country subdivisions that have been approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN).

 

The US Government cannot use ISO 3166 directly. US Public Law 80-242 (1947) requires the US Government to use geographic names that have been approved by the BGN. ISO 3166 contains some country and subdivision names that vary from those approved by the BGN. The geopolitical entities included in ISO 3166 are those that are recognized by the United Nations (UN). The GENC Ed1.0 is the US Government implementation of ISO 3166-1 that conforms to BGN and US Government recognition policy. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency has developed a country codes registry to maintain the data content of the GENC. 

 
 ISO 19156:2011 ISO 19156:2011, Geographic information - Observations and Measurements   2011/12/25 ISO   RAS ISO 19156:2011 defines a conceptual schema for observations, and for features involved in sampling when making observations. These provide models for the exchange of information describing observation acts and their results, both within and between different scientific and technical communities.

Observations commonly involve sampling of an ultimate feature-of-interest. ISO 19156:2011 defines a common set of sampling feature types classified primarily by topological dimension, as well as samples for ex-situ observations. The schema includes relationships between sampling features (sub-sampling, derived samples).

ISO 19156:2011 concerns only externally visible interfaces and places no restriction on the underlying implementations other than what is needed to satisfy the interface specifications in the actual situation.

 
 OGC 10-126r3  OGC® WaterML 2.0: Part 1- Time series  2012-09-07  OGC CES  OGC® WaterML 2.0: Part 1- Time series is an OGC® Encoding Standard for the representation of hydrological observations data with a specific focus on time series structures. WaterML2.0 is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.2.1, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards.  
 TSPI Version 2.0 Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI), Version 2.0, (2012-04-05)  2013-08  NGA  CES  The  Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI) Version 2.0 standard provides a single means of encoding spatiotemporal information for the storage, manipulation, interchange, and exploitation of spatiotemporal data. As US government systems become more interoperable, the need to unambiguously encode spatiotemporal data for exchange among systems is paramount. The TSPI common core standard is designed to be that unambiguous eXtensible Markup Language (XML) encoding standard. 
 
The TSPI Version 2.0 standard is a robust mechanism for expressing "Where" and "When" spatiotemporal data in various core and extended XML-based information schemata throughout the US Federal Sector. Spatial information includes position, extent (shape), size, orientation, and rates of change in these characteristics, while temporal information includes position (instant), extent (duration), and periodic recurrence characteristics. The TSPI standard should be employed any time a standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) encoding of spatiotemporal geospatial data is required. It is designed as a set of reusable data components upon which both Geography Markup Language (GML)-based application schemas and non-GML-based XML schemas may be developed. It specifies a registry-based extension mechanism enabling the development and reuse of additional spatiotemporal XML Schema components. It integrates the XML Schema for the United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard, FGDC-STD-016-2011, including the necessary updates to work with the OGC® GML 3.3, Extended schemas and encoding rules. 
 
The TSPI Version 2.0 standard specifies a core XML schema for the spatial, temporal, and accompanying quality assessment characteristics of real-world entities (for example, features, equipment and life forms). Unambiguous expression of the values of spatial characteristics requires the identification of a robust spatial reference system, such as those associated with the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84), and the ability to specify the values of these characteristics with respect to that spatial reference system. Unambiguous expression of the values of temporal characteristics requires the identification of a robust temporal reference system, such as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), and the ability to specify the values of such characteristics with respect to that temporal reference system.
 
 WFS 2.0 OpenGIS Web Feature Service 2.0 Interface Standard (also ISO 19142)  2014-02-07  OGC  CSS

The OpenGIS Web Feature Service 2.0 Interface Standard (WFS 2.0) is applicable to the development of systems that have requirements to access or distribute geospatial feature data over a network.   A Web Feature Service (WFS) request consists of a description of query or data transformation operations that are to be applied to one or more features. The request is generated on the client side and posted to a web feature server using HTTP. The web feature server then reads the request and returns a set of results that conforms to the OpenGIS Geography Markup Language (GML) Implementation Specification.
WFS offers direct fine-grained access to geographic information at the feature and feature property level. Web feature services allow clients to retrieve or modify only the data they are seeking, rather than retrieving an entire file. 

WFS 2.0 is equivalent to ISO 19142:2010, Geographic information -- Web Feature Service.

 

The FGDC has already endorsed WFS 1.1.  WFS 1.1 will be retained as a legacy standard.  

 

*Categories are Reference and Abstract Standards (RAS), Common Encoding Standards (CES), Common Service Standards (CSS), Content/Code Standards (CCS)

Last Updated: Feb 21, 2014 11:18 AM
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