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          <TD id=header colSpan=5><IMG height=68 alt="Harpers Ferry Center" 
            src="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/mast-hfc.gif" 
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            <DIV id=printlogo><IMG height=78 
            alt="National Park Service, Harpers Ferry Center" 
            src="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/arrow-header-print.gif" 
            width=588> </DIV><A 
            href="http://www.nps.gov/hfc/carto/index.htm">NPS Maps</A> &gt; <A 
            href="http://data2.itc.nps.gov/hafe/hfc/carto.cfm">Find a National 
            Park Service Map</A> &gt; <A 
            onmouseover="message('Search Results');return true;" 
            href="javascript:parent.history.back()"></A>Data Sources &amp; 
            Accuracy</TD></TR>
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            <H1>Data Sources &amp; Accuracy for NPS Maps</H1></TD></TR>
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          <TD><IMG height=173 alt="Section of Zion National Park map" 
            src="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/carto-zion.jpe" width=173 
            border=1> 
            <P class=caption>Section of Zion National Park map, Utah.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD id=primary>
            <P>National Park Service maps are graphical products designed for 
            general reference, orientation, and route finding. Do NOT use these 
            maps for backcountry hiking, navigation, GPS referencing, 
            mountaineering, and other specialized activities�use US Geological 
            Survey (USGS) topographic maps instead. National Park Service maps 
            do NOT have legal authority. They are NOT official boundary 
            documents, and, because of their small scale and generalized nature, 
            do not necessarily show small outlying park areas and private 
            inholdings.</P>
            <P>Most of the digital maps at this site derive from traditionally 
            produced maps revised and printed during the past 20 years. An 
            increasing number of more recent maps, however, derive from 
            Geographic Information System (GIS) and <A 
            href="http://edc.usgs.gov/geodata/">USGS Digital Line Graph (DLG) 
            sources</A>.</P>
            <P>Because of graphical modifications, it is not appropriate to 
            import the maps on this site into GIS applications.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD id=related>
            <H3>RELATED LINKS:</H3>
            <P><A 
            href="http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs17199.html">National 
            Mapping Program Standards&nbsp;�</A></P>
            <P><A href="http://geonames.usgs.gov/gnishome.html">U.S. Board on 
            Geographic Names&nbsp;�</A></P>
            <P><A href="http://edc.usgs.gov/geodata/">USGS Digital Line Graph 
            (DLG) sources&nbsp;�</A></P>
            <P>&nbsp;</P></TD></TR>
        <TR>
          <TD><IMG height=175 alt="Example of NPS park map linework" 
            src="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/carto-linework.gif" 
            width=175> 
            <P class=caption>Example of NPS park map linework.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD id=primary>
            <H2>Linework</H2>
            <P>The linework on National Park Service maps originates from USGS 
            sources that meet <A 
            href="http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs17199.html">National 
            Mapping Program Standards</A>. However, manual production processes 
            prior to map digitization often diminishes the accuracy of the 
            original data. Factors contributing to inaccuracies include the 
            stretch and shrinkage of USGS paper maps, camera lens distortion 
            when photographing a composite base map, and manual drafting of 
            lines.</P>
            <P>The National Park Service uses stringent map digitizing standards 
            to minimize the introduction of additional errors when digitizing 
            traditional maps. For example, the size difference between digitized 
            maps and the traditional bases from which they derive never varies 
            more than 0.005 inch across the full extent of the map. The map 
            digitization standards also preserve the visual character of 
            features. For example, sinuous line strings comprised of tight 
            Bezier curves depict streams and graceful Bezier arcs represent 
            major roads.</P>
            <P>Linework on the more recent maps derive from GIS and USGS DLG 
            sources, albeit in a modified form. Typical modifications to 
            linework (and other vector data) include removal of excess and/or 
            inaccurate anchor points, conversion of linework to bezier curves, 
            and slightly changing the position of lines in congested areas to 
            improve legibility.</P>
            <P>Be aware that linework running off the printed area of maps is 
            sometimes fictitious and serves only as bleed for cropping. Some 
            classes of map data, especially hiking trails, derive from 
            non-surveyed or field-checked sources.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>&nbsp;</TD></TR>
        <TR>
          <TD><IMG height=175 alt="Example of NPS park map shaded relief" 
            src="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/carto-shaded-relief.gif" 
            width=175> 
            <P class=caption>Example of NPS park map shaded relief.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD id=primary>
            <H2>Shaded Relief</H2>
            <P>Shaded relief is the graphical portrayal of topography in a 
            natural manner using modulated light and shadows. Shaded relief on 
            most National Park Service maps derives from manual techniques using 
            airbrush, pencil, and paints applied to stable base materials. More 
            recent shaded relief, however, derives from digital production.</P>
            <P>The registration of scanned shaded relief art to drainages and 
            other map linework occurs in Adobe Photoshop. In the event of 
            registration discrepancies, the NPS modifies the shaded relief�using 
            the standard array of scaling, distortion, and paint tools in 
            Photoshop�to ensure a close fit with the linework. We never alter or 
            reposition linework to fit shaded relief.</P>
            <P>The resolution of shaded relief at final size is generally 200 
            dpi, intended for printing with 175 lpi screens. Our testing has 
            shown that higher resolution adds no additional relief detail, but 
            only increases files to unwieldy sizes.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>&nbsp;</TD></TR>
        <TR>
          <TD><IMG height=85 
            alt="Examples of NPS park map cartographic symbols" 
            src="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/carto-point-symbols.gif" 
            width=175> 
            <P class=caption>Examples of NPS park map cartographic 
          symbols.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD id=primary>
            <H2>Point Symbols</H2>
            <P>Locator dots show the general location of points of interest. The 
            position of dots for sites covering large areas, such as campgrounds 
            and picnic areas, are approximate. To enhance legibility, features 
            represented by point symbols on the map are exaggerated in size 
            compared to their true size at map scale.</P>
            <P>Elevation dots come from USGS sources. To register summit 
            elevation dots with shaded relief bases, we sometimes adjust the 
            position of the dots slightly.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>&nbsp;</TD></TR>
        <TR>
          <TD><IMG height=100 
            alt="Examples of NPS park map scales, milage indicators, and point elevations" 
            src="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/carto-scales.gif" 
            width=175> 
            <P class=caption>Examples of NPS park map scales, milage indicators, 
            and point elevations.</P></TD>
          <TD 
          background="Harpers Ferry Center NPS Maps_files/dotted-line-vert.gif">&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD id=primary>
            <H2>Numbers and Scale</H2>
            <P>Elevations in feet come from USGS maps, from which we calculate 
            the metric elevations rounded to the nearest whole number.</P>
            <P>Mileage distances derive from odometer readings rounded to the 
            nearest whole number, as are equivalent distances in kilometers.</P>
            <P>Because National Park Service maps must fill the available space 
            on a brochure, they seldom match the scales of standard USGS map 
            series. To calculate a numerical scale, use the bar scale found on 
            almost every map.</P>
            <H2>Place Names</H2>
            <P>Geographic feature names derive from USGS maps and conform to <A 
            href="http://geonames.usgs.gov/gnishome.html">U.S. Board on 
            Geographic Names</A> standards, although discrepancies may exist. 
            Check with the Board to confirm all spellings.</P>
            <P>Other naming discrepancies may exist for categories of features 
            not covered by the Board such as the names of trails, roads, park 
            facilities, and points of interest. Name changes to these features 
            are not uncommon; National Park Service maps generally show the most 
            recent names endorsed by park officials.</P>
            <P>National Park Service maps use diacritical marks for spelling 
            Hawaiian place names where approved by the Board on Geographic 
            Names.</P>
            <P>Note: The National Park Service uses a proprietary font for 
            labeling Hawaiian maps that is not released publicly. Due to font 
            substitution, diacritical marks do not appear on downloaded maps. 
            Check printed National Park Service maps for the correct spelling of 
            all Hawaiian place names.</P></TD>
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    <TD>Author: Harpers Ferry Center<BR>Last Updated: Tuesday, 27-Sep-2005 
      16:00:12 Eastern Daylight 
      Time<BR>http://www.nps.gov/hfc/carto/data-sources.htm</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></BODY></HTML>
Last Updated: Apr 25, 2006 02:24 PM
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