# 4 : Spatial Reference Information

- 1{Planar}n |
- Local] +

- Grid_Coordinate_System |
- Local_Planar] +

- Azimuthal_Equidistant |
- Equidistant_Conic |
- Equirectangular |
- General_Vertical_Near-sided_Perspective |
- Gnomonic |
- Lambert_Azimuthal_Equal_Area |
- Lambert_Conformal_Conic |
- Mercator |
- Modified_Stereographic_for_Alaska |
- Miller_Cylindrical |
- Oblique_Mercator |
- Orthographic |
- Polar_Stereographic |
- Polyconic |
- Robinson |
- Sinusoidal |
- Space_Oblique_Mercator_(Landsat) |
- Stereographic |
- Transverse Mercator |
- van_der_Grinten |
- Map_Projection_Parameters]

- Scale_Factor_at_Equator] +

- Oblique_Line_Point] +

- Oblique_Line_Longitude}2

- Scale_Factor_at_Projection_Origin] +

*Appropriate data elements 4.1.2.1.23.1 through 4.1.2.1.23.18 to*

*document the map projection parameters.*

- Universal_Polar_Stereographic |
- State_Plane_Coordinate_System |
- ARC_Coordinate_System |
- Other_Grid_System's_Definition]

- Transverse_Mercator |
- Oblique_Mercator |
- Polyconic]

- Azimuthal_Equidistant]

- Distance_and_Bearing_Representation] +

- 4.1.1 Geographic -- the quantities of latitude and longitude which define the position of a point on the Earth's surface with respect to a reference spheroid.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: geograph
- 4.1.1.1 Latitude Resolution -- the minimum difference between two adjacent latitude values expressed in Geographic Coordinate Units of measure.
- Type: real
- Domain: Latitude Resolution > 0.0
- Short Name: latres
- 4.1.1.2 Longitude Resolution -- the minimum difference between two adjacent longitude values expressed in Geographic Coordinate Units of measure.
- Type: real
- Domain: Longitude Resolution > 0.0
- Short Name: longres
- 4.1.1.3 Geographic Coordinate Units -- units of measure used for the latitude and longitude values.
- Type: text
- Domain: "Decimal degrees" "Decimal minutes" "Decimal seconds" "Degrees and decimal minutes" "Degrees, minutes, and decimal seconds" "Radians" "Grads"
- Short Name: geogunit

- 4.1.2 Planar -- the quantities of distances, or distances and angles, which define the position of a point on a reference plane to which the surface of the Earth has been projected.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: planar
- 4.1.2.1 Map Projection -- the systematic representation of all or part of the surface of the Earth on a plane or developable surface.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: mapproj
- 4.1.2.1.1 Map Projection Name -- name of the map projection.
- Type: text
- Domain: Albers Conical Equal Area" "Azimuthal Equidistant" "Equidistant Conic" "Equirectangular" "General Vertical Near-sided Projection" "Gnomonic" "Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area" "Lambert Conformal Conic" "Mercator" "Modified Stereographic for Alaska" "Miller Cylindrical" "Oblique Mercator" "Orthographic" "Polar Stereographic" "Polyconic" "Robinson" "Sinusoidal" "Space Oblique Mercator" "Stereographic" "Transverse Mercator" "van der Grinten" free text
- Short Name: mapprojn
- 4.1.2.1.2 Albers Conical Equal Area -- contains parameters for the Albers Conical Equal Area projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: albers
- 4.1.2.1.3 Azimuthal Equidistant -- contains parameters for the Azimuthal Equidistant projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name:azimequi
- 4.1.2.1.4 Equidistant Conic -- contains parameters for the Equidistant Conic projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: equicon
- 4.1.2.1.5 Equirectangular -- contains parameters for the Equirectangular projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: equirect
- 4.1.2.1.6 General Vertical Near-sided Perspective -- contains parameters for the General Vertical Near-sided Perspective projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: gvnsp
- 4.1.2.1.7 Gnomonic -- contains parameters for the Gnomonic projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: gnomonic
- 4.1.2.1.8 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area -- contains parameters for the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: lamberta
- 4.1.2.1.9 Lambert Conformal Conic -- contains parameters for the Lambert Conformal Conic projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name:lambertc
- 4.1.2.1.10 Mercator -- contains parameters for the Mercator projection
- Type: compound
- Short Name: mercator
- 4.1.2.1.11 Modified Stereographic for Alaska -- contains parameters for the Modified Stereographic for Alaska projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: modsak
- 4.1.2.1.12 Miller Cylindrical -- contains parameters for the Miller Cylindrical projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: miller
- 4.1.2.1.13 Oblique Mercator -- contains parameters for the Oblique Mercator projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: obqmerc
- 4.1.2.1.14 Orthographic -- contains parameters for the Orthographic projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name:orthogr
- 4.1.2.1.15 Polar Stereographic -- contains parameters for the Polar Stereographic projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name:polarst
- 4.1.2.1.16 Polyconic -- contains parameters for the Polyconic projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name:polycon
- 4.1.2.1.17 Robinson -- contains parameters for the Robinson projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: robinson
- 4.1.2.1.18 Sinusoidal -- contains parameters for the Sinusoidal projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: sinusoid
- 4.1.2.1.19 Space Oblique Mercator (Landsat) -- contains parameters for the Space Oblique Mercator (Landsat) projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: spaceobq
- 4.1.2.1.20 Stereographic -- contains parameters for the Stereographic projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: stereo
- 4.1.2.1.21 Transverse Mercator -- contains parameters for theTransverse mercator projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: transmer
- 4.1.2.1.22 van der Grinten -- contains parameters for the van der Grinten projection.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: vdgrin
- 4.1.2.1.23 Map Projection Parameters -- a complete parameter set of the projection that was used for the data set. The information provided shall include the names of the parameters and values used for the data set that describe the mathematical relationship between the Earth and the plane or developable surface for the projection.
- Type: compound
- 4.1.2.1.23.1 Standard Parallel -- line of constant latitude at which the surface of the Earth and the plane or developable surface intersect.
- Type: real
- Domain: -90.0 <= Standard Parallel <= 90.0
- Short Name: stdparll
- 4.1.2.1.23.2 Longitude of Central Meridian -- the line of longitude at the center of a map projection generally used as the basis for constructing the projection.
- Type: real
- Domain: -180.0 <= Longitude of Central Meridian < 180.0
- Short Name: longcm
- 4.1.2.1.23.3 Latitude of Projection Origin -- latitude chosen as the origin of rectangular coordinates for a map projection.
- Type: real
- Domain: -90.0 <= Latitude of Projection Origin <= 90.0
- Short Name: latprjo
- 4.1.2.1.23.4 False Easting -- the value added to all "x" values in the rectangular coordinates for a map projection. This value frequently is assigned to eliminate negative numbers. Expressed in the unit of measure identified in Planar Coordinate Units.
- Type: real
- Domain: free real
- Short Name: feast
- 4.1.2.1.23.5 False Northing -- the value added to all "y" values in the rectangular coordinates for a map projection. This value frequently is assigned to eliminate negative numbers. Expressed in the unit of measure identified in Planar Coordinate Units.
- Type: real
- Domain: free real
- Short Name: fnorth
- 4.1.2.1.23.6 Scale Factor at Equator -- a multiplier for reducing a distance obtained from a map by computation or scaling to the actual distance along the equator.
- Type: real
- Domain: Scale Factor at Equator > 0.0
- Short Name: sfequat
- 4.1.2.1.23.7 Height of Perspective Point Above Surface -- height of viewpoint above the Earth, expressed in meters.
- Type: real
- Domain: Height of Perspective Point Above Surface > 0.0
- Short Name: heightpt
- 4.1.2.1.23.8 Longitude of Projection Center -- longitude of the point of projection for azimuthal projections.
- Type: real
- Domain: -180.0 <= Longitude of Projection Center < 180.0
- Short Name: longpc
- 4.1.2.1.23.9 Latitude of Projection Center -- latitude of the point of projection for azimuthal projections.
- Type: real
- Domain: -90.0 <= Latitude of Projection Center <= 90.0
- Short Name: latprjc
- 4.1.2.1.23.10 Scale Factor at Center Line -- a multiplier for reducing a distance obtained from a map by computation or scaling to the actual distance along the center line.
- Type: real
- Domain: Scale Factor at Center Line > 0.0
- Short Name: sfctrlin
- 4.1.2.1.23.11 Oblique Line Azimuth -- method used to describe the line along which an oblique mercator map projection is centered using the map projection origin and an azimuth.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: obqlazim
- 4.1.2.1.23.11.1 Azimuthal Angle -- angle measured clockwise from north, and expressed in degrees.
- Type: real
- Domain: 0.0 <= Azimuthal Angle < 360.0
- Short Name: azimangl
- 4.1.2.1.23.11.2 Azimuth Measure Point Longitude -- longitude of the map projection origin.
- Type: real
- Domain: -180.0 <= Azimuth Measure Point Longitude < 180.0
- Short Name: azimptl

- 4.1.2.1.23.12 Oblique Line Point -- method used to describe the line along which an oblique mercator map projection is centered using two points near the limits of the mapped region that define the center line.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: obqlpt
- 4.1.2.1.23.12.1 Oblique Line Latitude -- latitude of a point defining the oblique line.
- Type: real
- Domain: -90.0 <= Oblique Line Latitude <= 90.0
- Short Name: obqllat
- 4.1.2.1.23.12.2 Oblique Line Longitude -- longitude of a point defining the oblique line.
- Type: real
- Domain: -180.0 <= Oblique Line Longitude < 180.0
- Short Name: obqllong

- 4.1.2.1.23.13 Straight Vertical Longitude from Pole -- longitude to be oriented straight up from the North or South Pole.
- Type: real
- Domain: -180.0 <= Straight Vertical Longitude from Pole < 180.0
- Short Name: svlong
- 4.1.2.1.23.14 Scale Factor at Projection Origin -- a multiplier for reducing a distance obtained from a map by computation or scaling to the actual distance at the projection origin.
- Type: real
- Domain: Scale Factor at Projection Origin > 0.0
- Short Name: sfprjorg
- 4.1.2.1.23.15 Landsat Number -- number of the Landsat satellite. (Note: This data element exists solely to provide a parameter needed to define the space oblique mercator projection. It is not used to identify data originating from a remote sensing vehicle.)
- Type: Integer
- Domain: free integer
- Short Name: landsat
- 4.1.2.1.23.16 Path Number -- number of the orbit of the Landsat satellite. (Note: This data element exists solely to provide a parameter needed to define the space oblique mercator projection. It is not used to identify data originating from a remote sensing vehicle.)
- Type: integer
- Domain: 0 < Path Number < 251 for Landsats 1, 2, or 3 0 < Path Number < 233 for Landsats 4 or 5, free integer
- Short Name: pathnum
- 4.1.2.1.23.17 Scale Factor at Central Meridian -- a multiplier for reducing a distance obtained from a map by computation or scaling to the actual distance along the central meridian.
- Type: real
- Domain: Scale Factor at Central Meridian > 0.0
- Short Name: sfctrmer
- 4.1.2.1.23.18 Other Projection's Definition -- a description of a projection, not defined elsewhere in the standard, that was used for the data set. The information provided shall include the name of the projection, names of parameters and values used for the data set, and the citation of the specification for the algorithms that describe the mathematical relationship between Earth and plane or developable surface for the projection.
- Type: text
- Domain: free text

- 4.1.2.2 Grid Coordinate System -- a plane-rectangular coordinate system usually based on, and mathematically adjusted to, a map projection so that geographic positions can be readily transformed to and from plane coordinates.
- Type: compound
- Short Name gridsys
- 4.1.2.2.1 Grid Coordinate System Name -- name of the grid coordinate system.
- Type: text
- Domain: "Universal Transverse Mercator" "Universal Polar Stereographic" "State Plane Coordinate System 1927" "State Plane Coordinate System 1983" "ARC Coordinate System" "other grid system"
- Short Name: gridsysn
- 4.1.2.2.2 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) -- a grid system based on the transverse mercator projection, applied between latitudes 84 degrees north and 80 degrees south on the Earth's surface.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: utm
- 4.1.2.2.2.1 UTM Zone Number -- identifier for the UTM zone.
- Type: integer
- Domain: 1 <= UTM Zone Number <= 60 for the northern hemisphere; -60 <= UTM Zone Number <= -1 for the southern hemisphere
- Short Name: utmzone

- 4.1.2.2.3 Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) -- a grid system based on the polar stereographic projection, applied to the Earth's polar regions north of 84 degrees north and south of 80 degrees south.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: ups
- 4.1.2.2.3.1 UPS Zone Identifier -- identifier for the UPS zone.
- Type: text
- Domain: "A" "B" "Y" "Z"
- Short Name: upszone

- 4.1.2.2.4 State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) -- a plane-rectangular coordinate system established for each state in the United States by the National Geodetic Survey.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: spcs
- 4.1.2.2.4.1 SPCS Zone Identifier -- identifier for the SPCS zone.
- Type: text
- Domain: Four-digit numeric codes for the State Plane Coordinate Systems based on the North American Datum of 1927 are found in Department of Commerce, 1986, Representation of geographic point locations for information interchange (Federal Information Processing Standard 70-1): Washington: Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Codes for the State Plane Coordinate Systems based on the North American Datum of 1983 are found in Department of Commerce, 1989 (January), State Plane Coordinate System of 1983 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Manual NOS NGS 5): Silver Spring, Maryland, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Coast and Geodetic Survey.
- Short Name: spcszone

- 4.1.2.2.5 ARC Coordinate System -- the Equal Arc-second Coordinate System, a plane- rectangular coordinate system established in Department of Defense, 1990, Military specification ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) (MIL-A-89007): Philadelphia, Department of Defense, Defense Printing Service Detachment Office.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: arcsys
- 4.1.2.2.5.1 ARC System Zone Identifier -- identifier for the ARC Coordinate System Zone.
- Type: integer
- Domain: 1 <= ARC System Zone Identifier <= 18
- Short Name: arczone

- 4.1.2.2.6 Other Grid System's Definition -- a complete description of a grid system, not defined elsewhere in this standard, that was used for the data set. The information provided shall include the name of the grid system, the names of the parameters and values used for the data set, and the citation of the specification for the algorithms that describe the mathematical relationship between the Earth and the coordinates of the grid system.
- Type: text
- Domain: free text
- Short Name: othergrd

- 4.1.2.3 Local Planar -- any right-handed planar coordinate system of which the z-axis coincides with a plumb line through the origin that locally is aligned with the surface of the Earth.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: localp
- 4.1.2.3.1 Local Planar Description -- a description of the local planar system.
- Type: text
- Domain: free text
- Short Name: localpd
- 4.1.2.3.2 Local Planar Georeference Information -- a description of the information provided to register the local planar system to the Earth (e.g. control points, satellite ephemeral data, inertial navigation data).
- Type: text
- Domain: free text
- Short Name: localpgi

- 4.1.2.4 Planar Coordinate Information -- information about the coordinate system developed on the planar surface.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: planci
- 4.1.2.4.1 Planar Coordinate Encoding Method -- the means used to represent horizontal positions.
- Type: text
- Domain: "coordinate pair" "distance and bearing" "row and column"
- Short Name: plance
- 4.1.2.4.2 Coordinate Representation -- the method of encoding the position of a point by measuring its distance from perpendicular reference axes (the "coordinate pair" and "row and column" methods).
- Type: compound
- Short Name: coordrep
- 4.1.2.4.2.1 Abscissa Resolution -- the (nominal) minimum distance between the "x" or column values of two adjacent points, expressed in Planar Distance Units of measure.
- Type: real
- Domain: Abscissa Resolution > 0.0
- Short Name: absres
- 4.1.2.4.2.2 Ordinate Resolution -- the (nominal) minimum distance between the "y" or row values of two adjacent points, expressed in Planar Distance Units of measure.
- Type: real
- Domain: Ordinate Resolution > 0.0
- Short Name: ordres

- 4.1.2.4.3 Distance and Bearing Representation -- a method of encoding the position of a point by measuring its distance and direction (azimuth angle) from another point.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: distbrep
- 4.1.2.4.3.1 Distance Resolution -- the minimum distance measurable between two points, expressed Planar Distance Units of measure.
- Type: real
- Domain: Distance Resolution > 0.0
- Short Name: distres
- 4.1.2.4.3.2 Bearing Resolution -- the minimum angle measurable between two points, expressed in Bearing Units of measure.
- Type: real
- Domain: Bearing Resolution > 0.0
- Short Name: bearres
- 4.1.2.4.3.3 Bearing Units -- units of measure used for angles.
- Type: text
- Domain: "Decimal degrees" "Decimal minutes" "Decimal seconds" "Degrees and decimal minutes" "Degrees, minutes, and decimal seconds" "Radians" "Grads"
- Short Name: bearunit
- 4.1.2.4.3.4 Bearing Reference Direction -- direction from which the bearing is measured.
- Type: text
- Domain: "North" "South"
- Short Name: bearrefd
- 4.1.2.4.3.5 Bearing Reference Meridian -- axis from which the bearing is measured.
- Type: text
- Domain: "Assumed" "Grid" "Magnetic" "Astronomic" "Geodetic"
- Short Name: bearrefm

- 4.1.2.4.4 Planar Distance Units -- units of measure used for distances.
- Type: text
- Domain: "meters" "international feet" "survey feet" free text
- Short Name: plandu

- 4.1.3 Local -- a description of any coordinate system that is not aligned with the surface of the Earth.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: local
- 4.1.3.1 Local Description -- a description of the coordinate system and its orientation to the surface of the Earth.
- Type: text
- Domain: free text
- Short Name: localdes
- 4.1.3.2 Local Georeference Information -- a description of the information provided to register the local system to the Earth (e.g. control points, satellite ephemeral data, inertial navigation data).
- Type: text
- Domain: free text
- Short Name: localgeo

- 4.1.4 Geodetic Model -- parameters for the shape of the earth.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: geodetic
- 4.1.4.1 Horizontal Datum Name -- the identification given to the reference system used for defining the coordinates of points.
- Type: text
- Domain: "North American Datum of 1927" "North American Datum of 1983" free text
- Short Name: horizdn
- 4.1.4.2 Ellipsoid Name -- identification given to established representations of the Earth's shape.
- Type: text
- Domain: "Clarke 1866" "Geodetic Reference System 80" free text
- Short Name: ellips
- 4.1.4.3 Semi-major Axis -- radius of the equatorial axis of the ellipsoid.
- Type: real
- Domain: Semi-major Axis > 0.0
- Short Name: semiaxis
- 4.1.4.4 Denominator of Flattening Ratio -- the denominator of the ratio of the difference between the equatorial and polar radii of the ellipsoid when the numerator is set to 1.
- Type: real
- Domain: Denominator of Flattening > 0.0
- Short Name: denflat

- 4.2.1 Altitude System Definition -- the reference frame or system from which altitudes (elevations) are measured. The term "altitude"' is used instead of the common term "elevation" to conform to the terminology in Federal Information Processing Standards 70-1 and 173.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: altsys
- 4.2.1.1 Altitude Datum Name -- the identification given to the surface taken as the surface of reference from which altitudes are measured.
- Type: text
- Domain: "National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929" "North American Vertical Datum of 1988" free text
- Short Name: altdatum
- 4.2.1.2 Altitude Resolution -- the minimum distance possible between two adjacent altitude values, expressed in Altitude Distance Units of measure.
- Type: real
- Domain: Altitude Resolution > 0.0
- Short Name: altres
- 4.2.1.3 Altitude Distance Units -- units in which altitudes are recorded.
- Type: text
- Domain: "meters" "feet" free text
- Short Name: altunits
- 4.2.1.4 Altitude Encoding Method -- the means used to encode the altitudes.
- Type: text
- Domain: "Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates" "Implicit coordinate" "Attribute values"
- Short Name: altenc

- 4.2.2 Depth System Definition -- the reference frame or system from which depths are measured.
- Type: compound
- Short Name: depthsys
- 4.2.2.1 Depth Datum Name -- the identification given to surface of reference from which depths are measured.
- Type: text
- Domain: "Local surface" "Chart datum; datum for sounding reduction" "Lowest astronomical tide" "Highest astronomical tide" "Mean low water" "Mean high water" "Mean sea level" "Land survey datum" "Mean low water springs" "Mean high water springs" "Mean low water neap" "Mean high water neap" "Mean lower low water" "Mean lower low water springs" "Mean higher high water" "Mean higher low water" "Mean lower high water" "Spring tide" "Tropic lower low water" "Neap tide" "High water" "Higher high water" "Low water" "Low-water datum" "Lowest low water" "Lower low water" "Lowest normal low water" "Mean tide level" "Indian spring low water" "High-water full and charge" "Low-water full and charge" "Columbia River datum" "Gulf Coast low water datum" "Equatorial springs low water" "Approximate lowest astronomical tide" "No correction" free text
- Short Name: depthdn
- 4.2.2.2 Depth Resolution -- the minimum distance possible between two adjacent depth values, expressed in Depth Distance Units of measure.
- Type: real
- Domain: Depth Resolution > 0.0
- Short Name: depthres
- 4.2.2.3 Depth Distance Units -- units in which depths are recorded.
- Type: text
- Domain: "meters" "feet" free text
- Short Name: depthdu
- 4.2.2.4 Depth Encoding Method -- the means used to encode depths.
- Type: text
- Domain: "Explicit depth coordinate included with horizontal coordinates" "Implicit coordinate" "Attribute values"
- Short Name: depthem